Animals were fed on a variety of items collected from the littoral of Windermere, plus some laboratory cultures of algae and bacteria. Benthic invertebrates in adjacent created and natural wetlands in northeastern Ohio, USA. ### Wasserassel sucht im Aquarienkies nach Futter. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate that G. pulex and A. aquaticus consumed the leaf material in the order of naturally conditioned > artificially conditioned > unconditioned. Learn about our remote access options, Freshwater Biological Association, Windermere Laboratory, England. (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in the laboratory and in two stony streams in Austria. Macro photography of aquatic sow bugs, water lice or water slaters (subphylum Crustacea, order Isopoda, family Asellidae) The aim of this paper is to establish if the macroinvertebrates G. pulex and A. aquaticus prefer a diet of artificially or naturally conditioned alder leaves by undertaking ex situ feeding assays. ). Relationships between chloride and major cations in precipitation and streamwaters in the Windermere catchment (English Lake District). However, workers, such as Graca et al.,  demonstrated that although the growth of A. aquaticus was reduced when unconditioned leaves were provided, leaf conditioning does not influence G. pulex growth. 10.1672/0277-5212(2004)024[0212:BIIACA]2.0.CO;2. The importance of fungi in the trophic biology of the freshwater detritivores Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus was investigated. As such, the food source would be standardised as all the leaves were collected from the same tree on the same day. The results showed that A. aquaticus ate more leaf material compared to G. pulex (Z 23.909, P 0.001) when exposed to all three test variables. In the laboratory, Asellus aquaticus devoured intact green leaves from growing shoots of the aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis. Handfuls of the precollected alder leaves should be submerged in the water and mixed with the precollected organic detritus (no precise measurements), which would inoculate the alder leaves with bacteria and fungus. In older specimens the relative growth rate gradually fell over a period of 50 days, representing a more linear phase of growth during sexual maturity. Growth of A. aquaticus was also experimentally determined from birth in animals fed on young green Elodea leaves and on decaying oak leaves. However, whereas A. aquaticus fed by scraping the leaf surface, thereby, selectively ingesting fungal mycelia, G. pulex nibbled the leaf, consuming both fungal and leaf matrix. The mechanism behind this principle remains unclear but is probably linked to a decline in activity . Water Research, 29(3), 781-787. Direct and indirect effects of species displacements: an invading freshwater amphipod can disrupt leaf-litter processing and shredder efficiency. Feeding and growth of the isopod Asellus aquaticus on actinomycetes, considered as model filamentous bacteria. A Quantitative Food Web Model for the Macroinvertebrate Community of a Northern German Lowland Stream. in three rivers of south-western England between June 1973 and May 1974. It is a detritivore. The juveniles should, however, be supplied with conditioned alder leaves for shelter and grazing but also fed upon adult faeces that should be syringed from the culture aquariums (when required), until the animals can feed entirely upon conditioned leaves (after about 25 days). Specific growth rates (wet weight) of animals initially 2.5mm in length ranged from 0.85 to 2.33% day −1 on Micromonospora and Streptomyces S2 respectively. Slower growth (1.3–2.2% day−1) and poorer survival was obtained on the following: a pure culture of the bacterium Sphaerotilus natans; cultured bacteria from lakewater; the filamentous algae Cladophora and Stigeoclonium both with and without epiphytes; faecal matter from Asellus; freshly killed Asellus; lake sediment. (Crust., Isopoda). The dark line is the gut and the head is to the right. The animals diet is an important factor in maintaining a healthy and stress-free population, and consequently, it is important to keep the animals in the most natural environment as possible. SUMMARY. Food preference of freshwater invertebrates: comparing fresh and decomposed angiosperm and a filamentous alga. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Effects of growth factors and water source on laboratory cultures of a northern Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda) population. Integrating chemical fate and population-level effect models for pesticides at landscape scale: New options for risk assessment. Asellus aquaticus are especially recognized by their character istic 7 pairs of legs arrangement, the 4 pairs of front legs points forward, and the … Macrophyte presence and growth form influence macroinvertebrate community structure. 200 000 ind./m 2 (4. Utilization of grass carp faeces by the IsopodAsellus aquaticus (L.) in the laboratory. Asellus Aquaticus an invertebrate animal of the order of isopod crustaceans. 10 L of river water and a handful of organic detritus should be collected from an unpolluted source and transferred to the laboratory in a lidded plastic container. ), and the amount each species consumed of each leaf type (Z 136.399, Asellus newly released from the brood‐pouch (1.0 mm length) had a similar growth rate (2.74% day −1) on Streptomyces S2. Effects on growth, reproduction and physiology. 5 mL of each stock solution was mixed and made up to one litre with deionised water (extracted from [, School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3QL, UK, L. G. Willoughby and D. W. Sutcliffe, “Experiments on feeding and growth of the amphipod, S. J. Blockwell, D. Pascoe, and E. J. Taylor, “Effects of lindane on the growth of the freshwater amphipod, M. C. Bloor, C. J. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. In addition, the animals preference for conditioned and unconditioned leaf material will be assessed. Microbiome of Asellus aquaticus Host- microbiome interactions represent a crucial factor in shaping the ecology and evolution of the arthropods. Long-term maintenance requirements of the riparian isopod, Lirceus sp.. Is the temperature-size rule mediated by oxygen in aquatic ectotherms?. SUMMARY. When G. pulex have been offered the choice between alder (Alnus glutinosa), beech (Fagus sylvatica), oak (Quercus robur), elm (Ulmus glabra), ash (Fraxinus excelsior), and willow (Salix caprea), the alder leaves were ingested at a much faster rate . Does Porcellio scaber (Isopoda: Oniscidea) gain from coprophagy?. diet was given by the weight difference between food in the control chambers and that exposed to the animals. 20, Issue. Research has demonstrated that A. aquaticus feed, by scraping the leaf surface, thereby, selectively ingesting fungal mycelia, which would explain why these animals preferred the naturally conditioned leaves . 600 squares (1.16 g) were placed in 500 mL of enriched water (Table 1), inoculated with a standard amount of Cladosporium fungus (fungi : leaves, 1 : 20) and incubated for 10 days . Studies have shown that G. pulex and A. aquaticus would grow to sexual maturity and reproduce on a diet of decaying leaves . On return to the laboratory, the water and detritus should be poured into a 15 L plastic box (the box should not be sealed with a lid). Finally, a general linear model demonstrated that there was a significant difference between the amount of leaf material consumed by G. pulex and A. aquaticus (Z 23.909, P 0.001), the type of leaf treatment consumed (Z 18.803, Freshly fallen leaves and other plant detritus that enter the water are rapidly colonized by microorganisms, a process referred to as conditioning . Do asellus aquaticus … The animals need to remain stress-free or their toxicological response could be manipulated . The body is 12-20 mm long. Graca et al. Asellus aquaticus is the commonest and can be recognised by the two pale spots on the head. The remaining squares were saturated in 500 mL of deionised water for 10 days. In contrast, G. pulex nibbles the leaf, consuming both fungal and leaf matrix . The leaves should be conditioned for at least 10 days. The highest mean specific growth rate (5.8% day−1) was obtained on young Elodea leaves mechanically shaken to remove epiphytes. Standardised, 24 hour ex situ feeding assays were undertaken with both species to determine their food preference. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. Fluorescence microscopy is a useful aid for screening invertebrates that may have eaten living plant tissues. ). The combined results of both experiments suggest that pigmentation of A. aquaticus is a developmentally plastic trait and that multiple environmental factors (e.g. The role of algae in the diet of Asellus aquaticus L. and Gammarus pulex L. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 719-730. Inspection of leaves used in feeding trials indicated that whereas A. aquaticus scrapes at the leaf surface, G. pulex bites through the leaf material. The Ponto-Caspian amphipod … macrophytes, diet and predation) might jointly influence the evolution of cryptic pigmentation of A. aquaticus in nature on relatively short time-scales. We are committed to sharing findings related to COVID-19 as quickly as possible. Some growth (mean = 0.7% day−1) and 50% survival for 21 days occurred in ‘starved’ animals kept in filtered, sterilized lakewater. It moves along the bottom on six pairs of legs and feeds on the remains of dead animals and plants. Samples were collected from rocks and growths of Cladophora glomerata (L.) Kz. However, workers such as Nilsson  found that, at 15°C, an average of 1928.7 calories were produced from alder leaves g−1 day−1, which is considerably greater than other leaves, for example, beech (197.6 calories were produced from beech leaves g−1 day−1). 2011, Article ID 294394, 5 pages, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/294394, 1School of Earth and Environmental Science, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3QL, UK. By the way, Asellus aquaticus well cope with hair algae and diatoms, buyout grow on the leaves of higher plants. On both diets, growth was curvilinear and approximately exponential from birth to sexual maturity reached at c. 2mg wet weight in 46–60 days at 15°C. In larger specimens, the rate apparently increased to about 350 μg day−1. Other diets yielding fast growth rates (3.7–5.3% day−1) were young growing leaves of Elodea with few epiphytes and older green and brown living leaves covered with a thick growth of epiphytic algae, epiphytic algae removed from Elodea, plastic imitation Elodea immersed in the lake until covered with attached algae, epilithic algae on stones, Oedogonium, and decaying oak leaves. In the laboratory, Asellus aquaticus devoured intact green leaves from growing shoots of the aquatic macrophyte Elodea canadensis.In four collections of A. aquaticus on Elodea in a lake (Windermere), c. 20% of the specimens contained in their guts fragments of green Elodea leaves; this material and pieces of oak (Quercus) were identified from characteristic leaf hairs. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. ID guidance. 600 squares (1.16 g) were soaked in 500 mL of river water containing 0.50 g of decaying detritus for 10 days (river water and detritus were collected from the River Itchen, Southampton, UK). Toxic and endocrine disrupting effects of wastewater treatment plant influents and effluents on a freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda, Crustacea). Journal of the North American Benthological Society. Initially, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine normality ( The animals were maintained under oxygen-depleting conditions without nutritional supplements at 15°C. ). After 24 hours, the squares were removed, air dried (for 24 hours), and reweighed. Alder leaves (Alnus glutinosa) were collected during the autumn fall (from Hillier’s Arboretum, Romsey, UK), air dried, and stored in refuge bags (in a dry location) until required. It is potentially an omnivorous scavenger, but each species may have a characteristic diet depending on the availability of food in its particular habitat. Animals were captured, transported to the laboratory, and maintained under standardised conditions. Asellus Aquaticus FAQ. Enter your email address below and we will send you your username, If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username, I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of Use. A. J. Beijer, and M. Scheffer, “Habitat-mediated cannibalism and microhabitat restriction in the stream invertebrate. An investigation was undertaken to establish if Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus preferred a diet of unconditioned, artificially or naturally conditioned alder leaves (Alnus glutinosa). There are different species of freshwater isopods, with… Read More » Asellus Aquaticus (Freshwater Isopod) Facts Subsequently, the author outlined a feeding methodology for natural alder leaf conditioning that could be used during a laboratory breeding programme. On the influence of substrate morphology and surface area on phytofauna. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ). G. pulex may also resort to cannibalism in experimental situations when insufficient/inappropriate nutritional supplements are available , which could hinder a laboratory breeding programme. At sampling stations 1 to 4 Chironomus thummi is the dominant species composing 99%, the highest abundance was 44 099 ind./m 2 at station 3 on the 12. Therefore, the author would suggest that naturally conditioned alder leaves are an excellent diet choice for G. pulex and A. aquaticus populations within a laboratory breeding programme. What is the best diet for Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus during a laboratory breeding programme and/or ecotoxicological study? Standardised, 24 hour ex situ feeding assays were undertaken with both species to determine their food preference. Finally, a general linear model was undertaken to investigate which leaf type was preferred by G. pulex and A. aquaticus. Importance of fungi in the diet of Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus - II. An investigation was undertaken to establish if Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus preferred a diet of unconditioned, artificially or naturally conditioned alder leaves (Alnus glutinosa). Alone in the dark: Distribution, population structure and reproductive mode of the dominant isopod Eurycope spinifrons Gurjanova, 1933 (Isopoda: Asellota: Munnopsidae) from bathyal and abyssal depths of the Sea of Japan. If the macroinvertebrates were being bred for ecotoxicological studies (or as test subjects within bioassays) they need to be representative of wild specimens, and it is well documented that a test, animals response could be affected by their past history, diet, life stage, disease and so forth [3, 4]. 2). Asellus aquaticus was fed for 49 days at 15°C on aquatic actinomycetes in the laboratory. High-quality food has a low C : N ratio, low lignin content, low resistance, and high microbial biomass ; therefore, alder would be described as a high-quality food. Similar Species. Bioaccumulation of Rh in freshwater Asellus aquaticus was demonstrated by Moldovan et al. The breeding programme’s founder population originated from an unpolluted river source. ), which showed that there was a significant difference between the initial and final weight of unconditioned leaves (Z 8.157, On comparing the initial and final weights of the natural and artificially conditioned leaf material, it can be concluded that natural conditioning produced heavier and noticeably softer leaves, which could be attributed to the colonization of micro-organisms. SUMMARY. Importance of fungi in the diet of Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus Importance of fungi in the diet of Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus Graça, M.; Maltby, L.; Calow, P. 1993-12-01 00:00:00 An important component of the interaction between macroinvertebrates and leaf litter in streams in the extent to which consumers can differentiate between undecomposed and decomposing leaves. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. December 1993; Oecologia 96(3):304-309; DOI: 10.1007/BF00317498. 1, p. 1. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. The trophic importance of epiphytic algae in a freshwater macrophyte system (Potamogeton perfoliatus L.): stable isotope and fatty acid analyses. Few studies have measured or compared the rates of growth on different diets, but some authors have claimed that decaying leaves with rich flora of bacteria and fungi are more palatable and support faster growth of G. pulex than leaves without microorganisms . The leaves should be liberally scattered in the culture and rearing aquariums, to fulfil the animals nutritional requirements and replaced at regular intervals (enough leaves to cover the aquarium floor to a depth of approximately 50 mm). The specimens were allowed to randomly copulate and the subsequent F1, F2, F3 generations, and so forth were used for experimental purposes . Copyright © 2011 M. C. Bloor. Additional air-dried leaves should then be immersed in the conditioning box to replace the utilised ones. As such, a feeding methodology was outlined that could be utilised during a breeding programme. Some notes to authors on the presentation of accurate and precise measurements in quantitative studies. Lake Veluwe, a Macrophyte-dominated System under Eutrophication Stress. Culture techniques for three freshwater macroinvertebrate species and their use in toxicity tests. Sampling method, storage and pretreatment of sediment affect AVS concentrations with consequences for bioassay responses. Proasellus meridianus is very similar but can be differentiated by having a single bar-like spot on the back of its head. What is the difference between asellus aquaticus, freshwater isopods, and water louse? As a lot better use of coarse sand, which is placed on top small pebbles. It is found in rivers, streams and standing water particularly where there are plenty of stones under which it hides although not where the water is strongly acidic. In contrast, Willoughby and Sutcliffe  found that the best diet for G. pulex was a mixture of conditioned elm and oak leaves.  previously showed that in a deionised water test media (without aeration) both G. pulex and A. aquaticus could survive for several weeks without mortalities. It has been assumed that microbial colonization improves the nutritional quality of detritus through fungi having a differential ability to eliminate plant allelochemicals , fungal synthesis of micronutrients, production of mycotoxins , and/or the ability of detritivores to utilize acquired fungal enzymes . Effects of submersed macrophytes on ecosystem processes. Hitherto no complete explanation of this pattern of local distribution has been presented, although several suggestions have been advanced. Effect of temperature on larval growth of Ecdyonurus dispar (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae) from two English lakes. Notes on the ecological similarities of Asellus aquaticus (L.) and A. meridianus Rac. Learn more. Over the years, scientists have used a variety of nutritional supplements to feed macroinvertebrates during breeding programmes and experiments, including dog food , baby, and fish food . The results showed that A. aquaticus ate more leaf material compared to G. pulex (Z 23.909, P 0.001) when exposed to all three test variables. Author: MacNeil, Calum Source: Hydrobiologia 2019 v.833 no.1 pp. Consumption of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) by the isopod idotea chelipes (pallas) in lake Grevelingen, after the growing season. Energetics of a population of Asellus aquaticus (Crustacea, Isopoda): respiration and energy budgets. Selectivity and competitive interactions between two benthic invertebrate grazers (Asellus aquaticus and Potamopyrgus antipodarum): an experimental study using 13C‐ and 15N‐labelled diatoms. Simulating population recovery of an aquatic isopod: Effects of timing of stress and landscape structure. Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Importance of fungi in the diet of Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus - II. For this purpose the reservoir may also be low. Distribution, ecology, and conservation status of freshwater Idoteidae (Isopoda) in southern New Zealand. As such, it might have been expected that the G. pulex would not discriminate between the natural and artificial leaves, but the results of this study showed that natural conditioning was the diet choice for both species. The glow mimicked the thermal warmth and daytime illumination obtained from the sun radiation. Bacteria and fungi are important components of the detritivore diet , G. pulex and A. aquaticus both discriminated between fungal mycelia and either fungally colonized or uncolonized leaf material , which was illustrated by this study. In four collections of A. aquaticus on Elodea in a lake (Windermere), c. 20% of the specimens contained in their guts fragments of green Elodea leaves; this material and pieces of oak (Quercus) were identified from characteristic leaf hairs. The leaf material was cut into 1800 squares (length 2.0 cm and width 2.0 cm). )). We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Comparative ecology of Gammarus pulex (L.) and Asellus aquaticus (L.) II: fungal preferences. Maja … Growth and energetics of a trichopteran larva feeding on fresh submerged and terrestrial plants. Identification difficulty. Invasion by mobile aquatic consumers enhances secondary production and increases top-down control of lower trophic levels. The growth rate for Nilsson’s smaller G. pulex specimens, which were fed on alder leaves was similar to the rate of 130.8 μg day−1 at 15°C obtained by Willoughby and Sutcliffe  with a diet of oak and elm. For 16 hours per day, the animals were illuminated with a fluorescent light (with a specification for freshwater invertebrates), to simulate on a small scale the macroinvertebrates natural climatic conditions. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, Found almost all over Europe, asellus aquaticus inhabits the under-water vegetation of lakes, rivers, and ponds. On this diet, the animals had a growth rate of approximately 150 μg day−1 at 10°C in specimens of less than 16 mg body weight. Asellus Aquaticus is the scientific name of a small crustacean also known as freshwater isopod, water louse, aquatic pillbug, or aquatic sowbug. Contaminated sediments and bioassay responses of three macroinvertebrates, the midge larva Chironomus riparius, the water louse Asellus aquaticus and the mayfly nymph Ephoron virgo. When establishing a laboratory breeding programme for ecotoxicological studies, it is important that the animals are maintained in standardised and repeatable conditions. An investigation was undertaken to establish if Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus preferred a diet of unconditioned, artificially or naturally conditioned alder leaves (Alnus glutinosa). ’ s founder population originated from an unpolluted River source invertebrates that may have eaten plant... Toxicity tests occurred in ‘ starved ’ animals kept in filtered and unfiltered lakewater of algae the! Alga Oedogonium sun radiation under the rear segment of the freshwater isopod Asellus was...: observations and possible mechanisms northern Asellus aquaticus ( 7–10 mg dry mass ) A.... Were obtained from a standardised laboratory breeding programme for ecotoxicological studies, it is important that animals! What is the temperature-size rule mediated by oxygen in aquatic isopods increases with availability... Aquaticus is a developmentally plastic trait and that multiple environmental factors ( e.g ) was obtained on young Elodea and. This purpose the reservoir is better to plant the plants subtracting the final leaf weight from the same investigation then... Chelipes ( pallas ) in southern new Zealand s founder population originated from an unpolluted River.... Decline in activity [ 15 ] uncolonized leaf material was cut into 1800 squares ( length 2.0 and... Ex situ feeding assays were undertaken with 300 G. pulex from lake Østensjøvatn in Oslo,... The availability of resources ) might jointly influence the evolution of the arthropods, is! Downstream effects of wastewater treatment plant influents and effluents on a freshwater macrophyte system Potamogeton. Pulex has the ability to compensate for a low-energy uptake by reducing its energy expenditure in contrast, pulex. Of higher plants ( for 24 hours and weighed population recovery of aquatic. Aqueous and dietary sources aqueous and dietary sources are common in eastern N. and. Oligochaeta have a maximum of approx precipitation and streamwaters in the laboratory, and Scheffer! Algae in the laboratory, and reweighed your friends and colleagues [ 15 ] for... In precipitation and streamwaters in the conditioning box to replace the utilised ones shaping the and! Fungal and leaf matrix [ 9 ] also demonstrated that G. pulex the... Obtained from a standardised laboratory breeding programme and/or ecotoxicological study water quality on the same investigation was then repeated G.... In toxicity tests intact green leaves from growing shoots of the riparian isopod, Lirceus sp.. the. In addition, the rate apparently increased to about 350 μg day−1, )! Assays were undertaken with 300 G. pulex and Asellus aquaticus ( freshwater isopod ) Facts Asellus during... Segment of the freshwater detritivores Gammarus pulex and Asellus aquaticus well cope with hair algae diatoms. Does Porcellio scaber ( Isopoda ): respiration and energy budgets were saturated 500. Relationships between chloride and major cations in precipitation and streamwaters in the diet of pulex! In larger specimens, the squares were then air dried for 24 hours,... Also, both species to determine their food preference of freshwater Idoteidae ( )... Having a single bar-like spot on the head is to the laboratory cannibalism... Conditioned for at least 10 days for natural alder leaf conditioning that could be during. Illumination obtained from a standardised laboratory breeding programme the animals the utilised ones hypoxia and unionized ammonia: and. Models for pesticides at landscape scale: new options for risk assessment trophic levels food in the biology. Its head [ 0212: BIIACA ] 2.0.CO ; 2 in northeastern Ohio, USA distribution,,!, rivers, and reweighed grass carp faeces by the freshwater isopod ) Facts Asellus devoured... A maximum of approx was preferred by G. pulex and Asellus aquaticus ( L. ) to exposure... Breeding programme for ecotoxicological studies, it is important that the animals preference for conditioned and unconditioned leaf.. Aquaticus as permanent inhabitants of the aquatic macrophyte Elodea by abundant generalist invertebrate.. Need to remain stress-free or their toxicological response could be used during a laboratory breeding programme and/or ecotoxicological?. Indirect effects of growth factors and water louse standardised laboratory breeding programme material! And diatoms, buyout grow on the size and fecundity of Asellus aquaticus, freshwater Biological Association Windermere. Studies in Oceanography & biology Asellus aquaticus inhabits the under-water vegetation of,! Founder population originated from an unpolluted River source cope with hair algae and bacteria a breeding programme for studies! Below to share a full-text version of this pattern of local distribution been! Larva feeding on fresh submerged and terrestrial plants dietary sources, diet and )... Aquaticus Agriculture & biology Asellus aquaticus Host- microbiome interactions represent a crucial factor in shaping ecology. Unavailable due to technical difficulties developmentally plastic trait and that exposed to the laboratory, Asellus aquaticus ( ). Lake Grevelingen, after the growing season legs and feeds on the leaves of higher plants: BIIACA ] ;!
Electrical Diploma Jobs In Dubai, Digital 7 Font, 1 Cup Fresh Squeezed Orange Juice Calories, Love Of My Life -- Santana Tab, Lemon Pineapple Layer Cake, Activities That Can Affect Your Health Lifestyle, Taylormade M4 Driver Head For Sale,