Armored Scale Insects. Armored scales, oak pit scales, and sycamore scale do not excrete honeydew. Some Common Soft and Armored scales Soft scales brown soft scale hemispherical scale tessellated scale Armored scales Boisduval scale Fern scale. Asterolecanium epidendri Bouché (orchid pit scale). All armored scale bugs are round or oval in shape, no more than a centimeter in diameter, and usually have dark coloration. Almost 40% of the Clemson Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic sample submissions for home landscapes during 2012 and 2013 were scale insect pests, and of these, almost 90% of the species were the more difficult to control armored scales. Figure 5. They attach themselves to a plant and feed by sucking fluids through straw-like mouthparts. The female scale cover is oyster-shaped, gray, and 1-1.5 mm long. However, nymphs of both are small, often flat, and inconspicuous, which makes detection difficult without close inspection. By using the any of our websites and/or making online requests of products, you agree to the terms and conditions of EPG’s Policy. Hatching occurs through much of the year rather than in discrete generations. We discuss our information collection practices below. Armored scales can be circular, oval, oblong, thread-like or pear-shaped. Figure 3. Figure 7. Greedy Scale vs Brown Soft Scale Cassie Bouska OSU Extension Service . Our professional technicians will ensure your trees are taken care of while getting rid of soft scale insects. Our goal is to provide you with an experience that delivers the information, resources and services that are helpful to you. Keep susceptible host plants healthy and well watered; scales nearly always attack stressed plants. Stems should be checked around buds, leaf petioles and lenticles or other depressions which may offer a place for the scales to hide and feed. Heavy infestations may cause leaf yellowing, stunting, and dieback. Unlike armored scales, soft scales are not covered by non-living waxy armor. Nate Royalty, Ph.D., is product development manager — insecticides for Bayer Environmental Science, EPG Media LLC wants you to have a positive experience in connection with our products and services. commitment to diversity. They have one generation per year with crawlers active for 6-8 weeks in early and mid-summer. However, in most interiorscape and greenhouse situations, we’ve found the most common scale insects are soft-scales and mealybugs. Read our In contrast, soft scales secrete a waxy layer over themselves that cannot be separated from their body. Although many scale species from many families can be pests of ornamental plants the primary families are armored scales (Diaspididae), soft scales (Coccidae), and felt scales (Eriococcidae). Adult female gloomy scale with convex cover and settled second instar scales with small circular covers. Armored scales have been collected on a diverse array of host plants. Aphytis melinus is an important parasite of several species of armored scales including California red scale, latania scale, San Jose scale, and oleander scale. If you encounter scale of another color, it’s probably a soft scale. In North Carolina there are three generations per year with first crawlers emerging in early May then in 6-8 week intervals. This publication printed on: Dec. 03, 2020, Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants, Extension Plant Pathology Publications and Factsheets, North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual, Entomology – Insect Biology and Management, NC For assistance, contact your local N.C. Based on an analysis of the host data presented in Borchsenius' catalog (1966), armored scales occur on about 180 families of host plants and nearly 1,400 host genera.The most common host family is Fabaceae with 230 species of armored scales recorded from it. For assistance with a specific problem, contact your NC State Extension local County Center. noun. These scale insects often produce copious amounts of honeydew. By Nate Royalty, Ph. Destroying soft scale is a relatively easy process, except for those ants. 11). Read the full policy here:, Arysta LifeScience adds T&O sales manager, Cat Insurance partners with Cat AccessAccount, Irrigation Programming for Water Management, The economy & the green industry, part one: PLANET optimism, Project Profile: The Greening of Spelman College, Landscape Lighting: Voltage Drop and Wiring Methods, Avoid irrigation system damage with these winterization tips. Armored scalesScales damage plants by sucking the juices from the plants. With serious infestations, leaves drop prematurely, and twigs and branches may be killed. There are two types of scale insects; armored and soft scales. The goal of this page is to present information common to many scale species and help identify common scales. Annual applications of soil-systemic insecticides to susceptible ornamentals are a good idea, particularly if plants are under stress. Heavily infested trees become have dark gray bark, sparse canopies, and branch dieback. Black sooty mold fungus often grows on this honeydew. Infestations are heavier on interior leaves. Coccidae-Soft Scales. Typical damage symptoms include yellow spots on the upper side of leaves where scales are present beneath and sparse foliage from leaf drop (Figure 5). Fern Scale. Armored scales live beneath a waxy cover that is not attached to the adult body. Some of these parasitic wasps can be used to control multiple soft scale species. Though armored scales do indeed make their mark in these types of plantings, they generally seem to be more of a problem on citrus and other trees and shrubs. Soft scale insects’ “covering” is attached to their body while armored scale coverings can be lifted up presenting a teeny tiny insect underneath. A&T State University, in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee The sooty mold that develops on the honeydew produced by soft scales inhibits the plant’s ability to harvest light energy, reducing photosynthesis and further weakening the host plant. When insecticide applications are necessary, dormant oil applications can be made in winter to kill scales on trunks and branches. A&T State University. Euonymus bush infested with euonymus scale showing, yellowing, leaf drop, and branch dieback. armored scale: translation. April 12, 2016 •Brown Soft Scale • Soft Scale •Greedy Scale • Armored scale February 10, 2017 1 Soft body No outer shell Entire insect peels off Protective cover = armor Shell peels back to reveal soft insect underneath •Brown Soft Scale • Usually found on leaves While they may produce waxy secretions, the wax is granular and does not serve as a protective barrier as do the armored scale secretions. The distinction between these families is important because behavior and management of each group can be different. Crawlers are active for a variable and extended period in mid-summer. You are responsible for regularly reviewing this Policy and any changes thereto. This Privacy Policy sets forth the privacy practices with respect to your information when you use our software, mobile applications and services (“Services”) . Judging efficacy is complicated by the fact that the scale shells often remain on the plant long after the insecticide has killed the insect underneath. If an infestation is detected, treat before the infestation becomes too severe, and monitor the progress of the treatment in the weeks and months after application. Inspect plants periodically for presence of scales. NC State University and NC Examples of soft scales insects include lecanium scale, Fletcher scale, cottony maple scale, and magnolia scale. Some soft scales have one generation and others have many; this can vary by temperature and region. Indians. Armored scales are typically small and inconspicuous. Be aware of the most commonly occurring scale problems in your area. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. During the growing season target the crawler stage with horticultural oil, systemic insecticide, insect growth regulator, or other insecticide labeled specifically for armored scales. Find more information at the following NC State Extension websites: Publication date: Aug. 1, 2010 Key Points. Soft Scales: Armored Scales: Euonymus scale – Leaf Chlorosis. It is relatively flat and gray. This scale gives birth to pale yellow crawlers. Euonymus Scale Trial (2000) Newest Chemical Option: Safari Dinotefuran Systemic neonicotinoid The orchid pit scale is approximately 1-3 mm long. Figure 9. Crawlers under gloomy scale cover. Scale – Armored & Soft Foliar Spray 4 - 8 oz/100 gallons Soil Drench or Soil Injection Container: 12 - 24 oz/100 gallons Apply 4 fl oz of finished solution/6” pot Landscape: 3 - 12 grams/indbh (trees) or 3 - 6 grams/foot of height (shrubs) Basal Trunk Spray 12 oz/gallon Spray lower five feet of trunk to runoff Heavily-infested plants appear unhealthy and produce little new growth. In order to achieve this goal, we may collect information from you. Scale insects hatch from eggs and typically develop through 2 nymphal instar growth stages known as “crawlers”. There are hundreds of species that attack ornamentals. How Armored Scales Feed Upper leaf surface Male scale Vascular bundle Lower leaf surface Tracks of scale stylets (red) Striped Pine Scale. Foliage covered with this gray or black fungus is another indicator of a soft scale infestation. Adults often have a low profile against the plant surface. Armored scale damages plants by extracting plant fluids. Soft scale definition is - a scale insect (especially family Coccidae) more or less active in all stages; especially : brown soft scale. Infestations are common on trees stressed by physical damage, drought, temperature, or improper planting. Scales (Superfamily Coccoidea) are a diverse group of sucking insects that are common pests of trees and shrubs. This pit scale is very common on orchids and occasionally found on bromeliads. Revised: Aug. 29, 2019. If you’re seeing ants in the same plant as the scale bugs, you’ll have to get the ants under control at the same time that you treat the invaders. Control is delayed if the host plant is under stress, as uptake of the systemic insecticide is slowed. — Read our Figure 10. Biological Control is critical for scale management – Many NE’s available. This Privacy Policy sets forth the privacy principles we follow, in accordance with our operations. After application, test for efficacy by scraping the shell off the plant and looking for the soft, pulpy insect underneath. Instead of focusing on locating the vascular system of host plants, armored scale rupture and destroy the cells they’re feeding on directly. Adult scale covers are circular and white with a yellow center 1-2 mm in diameter. During this “crawler stage” (many cases mid-May through July) the insects are vulnerable … Soft brown scales secrete large amounts of honeydew and the adjoining foliage becomes heavily coated with sooty mold. The provisions of this Policy apply to all such mobile access and use of mobile devices. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status. Figure 2. Photo credit J. Davidson, U of MD Also look at Soft scale. Many ornamentals are attacked by a single scale species, while others are attacked by numerous species. Scales that feed on leaves can cause leaf spotting; spots progressively increase in size as the scales continue to feed. Find related pest control products, articles and questions on armored and soft scales Ask A Pro: 866-581-7378 Mon-Fri 9am-5pm ET Live Chat Contact Us Fast Free Shipping On Your Entire Order * Southeastern US Pest Control Guide for Nursery Crops and Landscape Plantings. There is one true specialist and that is the wasp Microterys nietnerii. The most important distinction is that armored scales do not produce honeydew, while soft scales produce large amounts of honeydew. DESCRIPTION Life Cycle. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by NC State University or N.C. A&T State University nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. Due to their size and behavior, scale insects frequently go unnoticed on landscape plants until they reach high numbers. We want you to know that we respect the privacy and security of our users. Stressed plants are more susceptible to scale attack. Soft scale insects do not produce such a thick protective barrier. If you do not agree to these terms, do not use the services. It also is important to remember that it may take weeks or even months before complete control is observed. Scale insects vary considerably in color – they can be black, brown, green, grey, orange, yellow, red, purple or white. Female tea scale covers are brown and boat-shaped. Scout for scales in early spring to monitor for crawler activity. Soft scales produce a soft, thin, cottony, powdery or waxy layer over themselves that cannot be separated from the insect body. Common symptoms of infestation include premature leaf drop and branch dieback (Figure 1). A chronic infestation can kill the host. Crawlers, the immature mobile life stage, may be monitored for by placing double-stick tape on some branches of the plant. Males are soft and white with a ridge down the back. This can reduce plant growth and vigor. Scales are a large and diverse group of insects. Gloomy scale – Gloomy scales primarily infest the trunk and branches of red maple trees but can infest other trees. Scales may be a problem in urban environments due to the absence of natural enemies, and plants may be under physiological stress. They tend to be gray/brown/black. but also pachysandra, hollies, and camellias. Cooperative Extension is based at North Carolina's two land-grant institutions, However, the wax fractions of soft scale tests are smaller than those of armored scale tests (Ben-Dov and Hodgson, 1997). The protective covers often blend well with plant bark so populations may become very large before being detected or a plant shows noticeable damage. In contrast, armored scales are covered with a thin, ‘hard’ shell that doesn’t have the thick wax characteristic of the shell of soft scales. Scales can be responsible for chlorosis, branch die-back, and ultimately, plant death. Armored scales do not secrete honeydew. Thus the cover can be removed to reveal the scale insect hidden below. Imidacloprid does not kill armored scales even though it will kill soft scales and felt scales. While some scales infest a wide variety of plants, others are host-specific. Scales attack hundreds of ornamental varieties, and are found everywhere ornamental plants are grown. armored scale. Tea scale – Tea scale is most common on the underside of camellia and holly leaves. Greedy Scale vs Brown Soft Scale Cassie Bouska OSU Extension Service January 5, 2016 •Brown Soft Scale • Soft Scale •Greedy Scale • Armored scale April 20, 2016 1 Soft body No outer shell Protective cover = armor Entire insect peels off Shell peels back to reveal soft insect underneath •Brown Soft Scale • Usually found on leaves They tend to be brown to yellowish-tan in color. How to Get Rid of Soft Scale. Since scale insects may occur on all plant parts, check the trunk and branches, as well as the twigs and leaves. Key Points. If the armored adults are present, control is much more difficult. This complicates management by making it hard to target crawlers with a single insecticide application. Crawlers can easily be controlled by oils and contact insecticides, but successful control depends on precise application timing. Adult Black Vine Weevil. Scale insects feed on leaves or branches of many ornamental plants grown in landscapes and nurseries. It is important to correctly distinguish the scale family (e.g., armored versus soft scale) and often the particular species of scale to determine whether control is warranted; and if so, what methods and timing of … Armored scales range in size, shape, and color. Obscure scale – Obscure scale is most common on the trunk and branches of oak and hickory trees. Armored and soft scales live beneath waxy covers that protect them from predators, parasitoids, and pesticides. Featured Articles Landscape Irrigation 0 Comments 776 views 0. Generally, they are divided into two categories, armored (hard) and soft scale. Soft scales typically are round or oval, often hemispherical, and are 1/8 to 1/2 inch in diameter. Like armored scales, soft scales will cover their bodies with bulky materials, called a “test” after they settle. Armored scales also tend to be smaller than soft scales and have Do you have a tree pest problem? Armored scales have a hard, shield-like cover composed of shed skins and wax that conceals the body but is not attached to the body of the insect. For more information on these species use links to their individual pages. Soft Brown Scale - Coccus hesperidum L. The scale body is flat and oval, light brown to yellowish in color with brown stippling, and 2.5 to 4 mm long (Fig. Scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha.Of dramatically variable appearance and extreme sexual dimorphism, they comprise the superfamily Coccoidea.Adult females typically have soft bodies and no limbs, and are concealed underneath domed scales, extruding quantities of wax for protection. Scale insects are divided into two groups, armored scales and soft scales, and if you need to control a scale problem, it helps to know which type of scale you are trying to control. Mature female covers have a dark spot (shed skin) just off center whereas male covers have a spot near the cover edge. commitment to diversity. We may offer you the ability to connect with our websites or use our applications, services, and tools using a mobile device, either through a mobile application or via a mobile optimized website. Soft and Hard Scales: How Do They Differ? Scale insects are common pests of landscape trees and shrubs that are often overlooked when scouting. June 2, 2004: Scales are common insect pests on ornamental trees and shrubs in landscapes. At low levels of infestation, scale insects … Adult make and female tea scale covers. The color often matches that of the host plant, making them difficult to detect, while the color of other species contrasts greatly with the host. This privacy policy (this “Policy”) describes the personal information we may collect from you, the purposes for which we collect it, how we use it and when we may share it with third parties. Scale insect management can be tricky, but there are critical differences between armored scales and soft scales in the insecticides that are effective, so you at least need to distinguish between these groups. Scale insects belong to a large group of sucking insects that attack a wide variety of trees and shrubs.

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